Conversely, various strategies that promote early and secure infant–parent attachment and non-violent modes of discipline, and create the conditions within the family for the positive mental health development of the child, have been proved effective in preventing child abuse.
The evidence that programs focusing on parenting improvement and support are effective in preventing child abuse is strong.
Earlier this year 85 recommendations were made ahead of the final findings in a criminal justice report issued by the commission, including the fact priests should be charged for failing to report child sexual abuse spoken of in a confession box.
Due to the "sacred seal" of the confessional there have been calls by expert witnesses during the inquiry for Pope Francis to guide Catholic leaders worldwide to encourage priests to report crimes to police and to also consider the affects of celibacy and seminary training on possible causes of child abuse.
In addition, child abuse includes exposure to domestic violence, due to the long-term damage on children of experiencing or witnessing parental intimate partner abuse.
Child abuse includes a wide range of behaviours: The Australian Institute of Family Studies reported in 2013 that the individual and community costs of child abuse in Australia were estimated to be billion in 2007, with a further lifetime cost of the burden of disease being .7 billion.
Former Catholic priest, professor Des Cahill, who was a consultant to the Royal Commission during the inquiry, told CNN he believes the Catholic Church will be keen to see that it's implementing all the recommendations to create a professional priesthood.
At the end of the final hearing Gail Furness, senior counsel assisting the commission, read out some of the messages written by survivors who gave evidence in a special book which will be held at the National Library of Australia.
Child sexual abuse in institutions continues today," said Mc Clellan.
"In some case studies into schools the alleged abuse was so recent that the children are still attending school." Mc Clellan singled out the Roman Catholic Church in particular for often putting reputation above the safety of children in what they found to be decades of systematic sexual abuse -- a familiar pattern of scandals dogging Catholic institutions globally."Some leaders felt their priority was to protect the reputation of the institutions ...