There are a number of factors that affect these calculations.
Whether an outcome is perceived as a gain or a loss depends on a person's reference point.
From a mutual perspective, "the needs of both the self and the others are coordinated, and a mutual, third-person perspective is adopted in which both sets of interests are taken into account."(p. Adoption of the mutual perspective is very important for high quality problem solving.
Individual and group decision making occurs throughout the conflict resolution process.
They describe each component, and develop a simple model of their interaction within the broader conflict resolution process.
The problem solving process involves two main parts: diagnosing the conflict, and developing alternative solutions.*Discount is on prepayment only and does not apply towards degree programs, corporate partnerships, custom programs, PHR Prep, Plant-Based Nutrition, Pharmaceutical Management, any single course except Beer Appreciation, or previous enrollments.Contact us for additional discounts for active duty military, veterans, and their military dependents.Solutions may take the form of a compromise, or agreement on a fair procedure for generating an outcome.Integrative, or win-win, solutions are the most desirable.An egoistic perspective sees the other party as an object, and typical reactions include whining, ignoring, or hitting.The unilateral perspective recognizes the other as an individual, but interacts with them in terms of obedience, command or avoidance. Jumping in too soon to solve the problem does not allow the child to discover the various skills needed as they grow. It is important to provide young children with opportunities to work on their problem solving skills and to offer gentle guidance and encouragement when they are struggling.Stress and emotional reactions also affect decision making.Group decisions include whether to continue problem solving, whether to get help, which procedures to use, and which solution to choose.