Perhaps, we should not take for granted that these rules are an integral and necessary part of competition. One popular source defines doping as “the use of a drug or blood product to improve athletic performance.” However, we can see that such a simple definition is obviously much too broad to serve as a precise definition for doping.
After all, under this definition, taking Tylenol to relieve muscle aches after a hard workout or using an asthma inhaler to prevent the constriction of the airway and to allow proper respiration, would be considered doping, but it is doubtful that many, if any, authorities would consider those actions to fall under the pejorative category of “doping.” Many other broad, philosophical definitions of doping also succumb to the same criticism – it is almost impossible to draw a line, ex ante , between accepted therapeutic use and illicit doping.
Of the definitions that attempt to use a philosophical basis to define doping, the marginally more-helpful definitions seem to include a requirement that the act be “a violation of sporting ethics” or “against the principles of sportsmanship.” I assert that in actuality, these definitions are not much more helpful than the one supplied by the dictionary, because there is no ex ante determination of what those principles of sportsmanship or sporting ethics are.
As a result, we do not determine that use of a certain drug is doping because it violates the some ethic or principle of fairness, but rather we believe that it is doping and thus it violates the ethic or principle of fairness.
The second part of this paper discusses the policy implications of current anti-doping regulations and enforcement.
After years of nonexistent or lax enforcement, has the current environment shifted too far, such that the penalties for doping are excessive for the crime committed?
This paper serves two purposes, as they relate to performance enhancing drugs.
First, it lays out a general overview of the history and effects of performance enhancing drugs.
This paper is submitted in satisfaction of both the course requirement and the third year written requirement.
Abstract The goal of this paper is to serve as a general treatise on the vast topic of use of performance enhancing drugs in athletic competition.