In this chapter we discuss other ethical issues and obligations: innovative research designs; reporting test results that have not been validated; potential third parties who may be affected but are not research participants; and researchers’ role-specific obligations to develop plans for responding to risks that are incidentally observed when they enter children’s homes.
If there are multiple contributing factors, it may not be clear which ones should be targeted for interventions.
Studies on asthma in children, for example, indicate that it is associated with multiple indoor pollutants, including settled allergens (cockroach, dust mite, cat and dog), environmental tobacco smoke, and mold or fungi (Institute of Medicine, 2000).
78), “research equipoise does not require numeric equality of intervention risks or potential benefits.
Rather, research equipoise requires approximate equality in the relation between the risks and potential benefits of the study and control interventions.” The committee believed that in clinical trials expert practitioners should make judgments about research equipoise.