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In most cases, the abstract page immediately follows the title page. Rules set forth in writing manual vary but, in general, you should center the word "Abstract" at the top of the page with double spacing between the heading and the abstract.The final sentences of an abstract concisely summarize your study’s conclusions, implications, or applications to practice and, if appropriate, can be followed by a statement about the need for additional research revealed from the findings.The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is usually no more than 300 words in length.
Although it is the first section of your paper, the abstract should be written last since it will summarize the contents of your entire paper.
A good strategy to begin composing your abstract is to take whole sentences or key phrases from each section of the paper and put them in a sequence that summarizes the contents. University of North Carolina; Borko, Harold and Seymour Chatman. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Hartley, James and Lucy Betts. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Citing to just a journal article's abstract does not confirm for the reader that you have conducted a thorough or reliable review of the literature.
Essentially, the descriptive abstract only describes the work being summarized.
Some researchers consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary.
That is, the researcher presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the paper.
An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract [purpose, methods, scope] but it also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author.
A research paper abstract is an organized and a short summary of an in-depth discussion in any of the academic disciplines.
The etymology of the word (“abs” “trahere’ = “bring away or derive from”) suggests that, more than just a summary, the essence of the abstracted article should be contained in the work.
How do you know when you have enough information in your abstract?
A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing a similar study.