Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and.For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.A book citation can be distinguished from an article citation by the presence of 1) place of publication and 2) publisher.
Because these tools are published by different publishing companies and citation style is not standardized, the same work may be cited slightly differently in one index or bibliography than in another, as these two examples illustrate: , and the month of issue is abbreviated S/O for September/October.
The publisher's conventions of abbreviation are usually stated at the beginning of each index volume, often in a list of "Abbreviations of Periodicals Indexed." Abbreviated titles are rarely used in electronic journal databases.
Offering a citation gives your readers and other scholars access to your information sources if they wish to follow-up, or find more information on your topic.
There are three main ways to uses sources in your research paper.
Your instructor will expect consistency and may count any inconsistencies against you.
Here is a list of published guides to citation style, available in print from the WCSU libraries, for use in citing sources published in print and online.You may quote, you may paraphrase, or you may summarize.All three require an in-text (parenthetical) citation.A citation for a document retrieved from an electronic database or online publication differs from a citation for an article published in print by the presence of an Internet address, usually the URL of the document at the time it was retrieved. Promising careers in academia have foundered on a scholar's failure to give credit where credit was due, and many colleges and universities in the United States, including WCSU, consider plagiarism grounds for disciplinary action.Citations are also used in indexes and abstracting services, bibliographies, and electronic databases that specialize in compiling lists of sources to facilitate research (often in a specific discipline or field of study).APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation (for long titles just use the first few words). Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015) Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons) Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. Web page with author: In-text citation Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying (Kraiser, 2011). Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote) One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote.A citation is the evidence that you have done research.Citations link your reader to the sources that informed your thinking and show that you are participating in a scholarly conversation.Read the course syllabus carefully--if citation style is not specified in the syllabus, ask your instructor investing time and effort in the formatting of your notes and bibliography.If you are allowed to choose a citation style, then once you have made your decision, be sure to maintain the same style throughout the paper.