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These tools are selected according to the needs of the task and are either divergent (i.e., used to generate options) or convergent (i.e., used to evaluate options)." People solve problems (to "make it better") in all areas of life.When we're solving a wide variety of problems, we can think productively in a variety of ways, as described in a theory of MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES developed by Howard Gardner.
Two Kinds of Design: This diagram distinguishes between Science-Design (usually it's just called Science, and is done mainly by using Reality Checks) and General Design (which includes Engineering & much more, and is done mainly by using Quality Checks) because this distinction is useful, because thinking about these two kinds of design helps us understand the problem-solving process we use for Science-Design and General Design and .Other models for the problem solving process of science are more complex, so they can be more thorough — by including a wider range of factors that actually occur in real-life science, that influence the process of science when it's done by scientists who work as individuals and also as members of their research groups & larger communities — and thus more accurate.For example, Understanding Science (developed at U. Berkeley - about) describes a broad range of science-influencers,* beyond the core of science: relating evidence and ideas.Because "the process of science is exciting" they want to "give users an inside look at the general principles, methods, and motivations that underlie all of science." You can begin learning in their homepage (with US 101, For Teachers, Resource Library,...) and an interactive flowchart for "How Science Works" that lets you explore with mouse-overs and clicking.The Ethics of Science by Henry Bauer — author of Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method (click "look inside") — examines The Knowledge Filter and a Puzzle and Filter Model of "how science really works.".A simple model of science is PHEOC (Problem, Hypothesis, Experiment, Observe, Conclude).When PHEOC, or a similar model, is presented — or is misinterpreted — as a rigid sequence of fixed steps, this can lead to misunderstandings of science, because the real-world process of science is flexible.While we're trying to help students improve a wide variety of abilities, we can develop teaching strategies that will be effective for students with different LEARNING STYLES.For example, we can help students understand-and-use...while solving problems, by combining creative thinking (to generate ideas) and critical thinking (to evaluate ideas).Both modes of thinking are essential for a well-rounded productive thinker, according to experts in both fields: Richard Paul (a prominent advocate of ) says, "Alternative solutions are often not given, they must be generated or thought-up.