Research Paper About Breast Cancer

Research Paper About Breast Cancer-41
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STUDY CHARGE AND COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES This study resulted from a request to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) by Susan G.

Komen for the Cure and its Scientific Advisory Board.

Another 450 breast cancer deaths are expected among men in 2011 (ACS, 2011).

Since the mid-1970s, when the National Cancer Institute (NCI) began compiling continuous cancer statistics, the annual incidence of invasive breast cancer rose from 105 cases per 100,000 women to 142 per 100,000 women in 1999 (NCI, 2011). In 2008, the incidence of breast cancer was 129 cases per 100,000 women.

Although such biological “background” mutagenesis is unavoidable, highly efficient protective pathways, such as DNA repair and immune surveillance, are effective at reducing the impacts of procarcinongenic events (Loeb and Nishimura, 2010; Bissell and Hines, 2011).

Although more needs to be learned about both the mechanisms by which breast cancers arise and the array of factors that influence risk for them, much has been established.

Breast cancer remains the most common invasive cancer among women (aside from nonmelanoma skin cancers), accounting in 2011 for an estimated 230,480 new cases among women in the United States and another 2,140 new cases among men (ACS, 2011). Chemicals causing mammary gland tumors in animals signal new directions for epidemiology, chemicals testing, and risk assessment for breast cancer prevention. WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research). Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: A global perspective. Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.

After lung cancer, it is the second most common cause of mortality from cancer for women, with about 39,520 deaths expected in the United States in 2011.

Further reduction of the incidence of breast cancer is a high priority, but finding ways to achieve this is a challenge.

As in most types of adult cancer, breast cancer is thought to develop as a result of accumulated damage induced by both internal and external triggers resulting in initial carcinogenic events.


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