Research Paper On Child Obesity

Obesity corresponds to excess body fat, so its correct diagnosis requires some marker or anthropometric measure that can be used to assess body fat accurately and be available to all paediatricians in everyday practise.It is possible to measure total fat mass directly with great accuracy, but the methods employed for this purpose are only within reach of a few research facilities.

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Last of all, the aforementioned review in this issue highlighted the lack of clear criteria for referral from primary to specialty care.

This is a problem that should be addressed on an urgent basis.

This approach is based on empathy, avoids “labelling” and assigning blame to the patient, and works on accepting ambivalent feelings, identifying resistance to change, and ultimately generating self-motivating affirmations that can foster positive change.

Difficulties in adhering to treatment and in the long-term maintenance of results have been widely reported in relation to the management of obese paediatric patients.

This is why, for all its drawbacks, the body mass index (BMI) has been adopted as the preferred method to define overweight and obesity.

Whereas BMI values of 25 and 30 are unanimously accepted as the cut-off points for overweight and obesity in adults, the situation is quite different in paediatrics.Thus, prevention may be a more effective approach to the problem.Starting with the research of Osmond and Barker, the scientific community has produced a growing body of evidence on the existence of “foetal programming” by which certain physiological events that take place in the early stages of life between conception and age 2 years (the so-called first thousand days of life) produce permanent changes in metabolism that somehow promote the subsequent development of various cardiovascular risk factors and diseases.The very nature of the child as a growing being whose body composition changes as years go by precludes the determination of a single value for each age-and-sex range.It is on this point that disagreements arise as to which is the appropriate standard for comparison.Numerous authors have highlighted that there is an obesogenic environment in our society characterised by the availability of foods rich in calories, refined sugars, saturated fats and salt at all times of day, and the emergence of sedentary leisure habits, with several hours a day spent in the use of televisions, console videogames, smart phones, etc., and a considerable decline in the hours children engage in physical activity, be it play or sports.Although the concept of obesity is well understood by all, its appropriate diagnosis continues to be a subject of debate.A recent study conducted in Jewish adolescents showed a significant association between a high BMI in adolescence and increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in adulthood.The increasing trend in the prevalence of childhood obesity is generalised across the developed world, and is particularly marked in countries like the United States of America, where the prevalence has tripled in the past few decades.Childhood obesity is unquestionably one of the major health problems confronting the developed world, and it has been termed a global XXI century epidemic by the World Health Organisation.While the aetiology of this disease is multifactorial and includes genetic and environmental causes, we can broadly state that the excess fat that defines it fundamentally arises from an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure.

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