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Family socioeconomic status (SES) is an important factor that affects an individual’s neural and cognitive development.
Data related to the socioeconomic status were collected in accordance with our previous study and mostly with the standard approach used by the Japanese government for evaluating socioeconomic status.
Descriptions in this subsection were largely reproduced from our previous study that used similar methods (Takeuchi et al., 2014a). doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2.2001 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Singh-Manoux, A., Marmot, M.
Although many previous studies have focused on the effects of SES on these cognitive measures across sexes (e.g., Evans and English, 2002; Evans et al., 2005; Sweitzer et al., 2008), some studies have focused on the sex differences of effects of SES on health measures as described below. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22294 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Nouchi, R., Sekiguchi, A., Kotozaki, Y., Miyauchi, C., et al. Regional gray matter density is associated with achievement motivation: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.
It is revealed that higher educational qualification of parents leads to low blood pressure during the developmental phase only in women (Janicki-Deverts et al., 2012).
Notably, women tend to have more stressors, particularly socially, and these stressors tend to cause more depressive symptoms (Hankin et al., 2007). doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr371 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Nouchi, R., Hashizume, H., Sekiguchi, A., Kotozaki, Y., et al. Working memory training impacts the mean diffusivity in the dopaminergic system.
Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated brain functions and brain volume correlates of family SES in young subjects of both sexes. doi: 10.1007/s00429-016-1262-5 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Hashizume, H., Sassa, Y., Nagase, T., Nouchi, R., et al. The association between resting functional connectivity and creativity. A neuroimaging study with 1099 typically developing individuals aged between 3 and 20 years showed that parents’ educational qualifications and the family income were positively correlated with the total brain surface area (Hurt and Betancourt, 2015). Another study involving 389 typically developing children showed an association between a higher family SES and a greater total gray matter volume (Hair et al., 2015). doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.193 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Sekiguchi, A., Nouchi, R., Kotozaki, Y., Nakagawa, S., et al. Differences in gray matter structure correlated to nationalism and patriotism. Tissue density increases with the increased presence of unspecific cellular structures (i.e., capillaries, synapses, spines, and macromolecular proteins); the properties of myelin, neuronal membranes, and axons; the shape of neurons and glia; and enhanced tissue organization (Beaulieu, 2002; Sagi et al., 2012). The majority of these tissue differences are thought to affect neural plasticity. Functional imaging studies have investigated the associations between family SES and a wide range of cognitive tasks. Based on these studies, SES is suggested to effect areas of cognitive control and regulation (prefrontal cortex), social emotional processing (amygdala), and memory (hippocampus) as well as the left hemisphere language network for language-related processing (Noble et al., 2006; Gianaros et al., 2008; Kishiyama et al., 2009; Hanson et al., 2011; Ursache and Noble, 2016a). doi: 10.1038/srep29912 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Sekiguchi, A., Nouchi, R., Kotozaki, Y., Nakagawa, S., et al. Mean diffusivity of basal ganglia and thalamus specifically associated with motivational states among mood states. Mean diffusivity (MD) is measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (Beaulieu, 2002) and used to measure the microstructural properties of gray and white matter. Delay discounting and smoking: association with the fagerström test for nicotine dependence but not cigarettes smoked per day. As we summarized previously (Takeuchi et al., 2016a), lower MD is sensitive to greater tissue density of the brain parenchyma (though is not strictly a measure of it). Based on abovementioned previous studies and theoretical background of family SES, these include diverse psychological measures of (a) basic cognitive functions, (b) traits related to affects, (c) stress, (d) traits related to cognition, and education. Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: a meta-analytic review of research. Family SES was separately measured using both family annual income and the parents’ average highest educational qualifications.