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These plates consist of multiplying cartilage cells that grow in length, and then change into hard, mineralized bone. Because girls mature at an earlier age than boys, their growth plates change into hard bone at an earlier age.Bone-building continues throughout life, as a body constantly renews and reshapes the bones' living tissue.
The involuntary muscles are controlled by structures deep within the brain and the upper part of the spinal cord called the brain stem.
The voluntary muscles are regulated by the parts of the brain known as the cerebral motor cortex and the cerebellum (ser-uh-BEL-um).
The amounts of some vitamins and minerals that you eat, especially vitamin D and calcium, directly affect how much calcium is stored in the bones.
Bones are made up of two types of bone tissues: In this soft bone is where most of the body's blood cells are made.
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Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process.
This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis.
An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis.
Bones are made up of a framework of a protein called collagen, with a mineral called calcium phosphate that makes the framework hard and strong.
Bones store calcium and release some into the bloodstream when it's needed by other parts of the body.