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However, due to the nonrandom nature of the sample, the results would not generalizable beyond the 162 participants in the study. In order to reduce threats to internal validity, the participants were asked to respond honestly and confidentiality was stressed so that the coaches might feel more at ease in responding. The researchers mention that the scales were given in a variety of settings.This could present a threat to the internal validity in that participants might not have been entirely focused on completing the scale, but instead on coordinating practice, completing paperwork, etc.
There were significant differences between the three levels.
When breaking down the six behaviors and examining them individually, an ANOVA was used to analyze the data.
The analysis showed there were no significant differences between male and female coaches in overall leadership behaviors.
When the six leadership styles were examined separately, there was a significant difference in social support between males and females.
There are a number of other factors that could effect the internal validity of the study, yet were not addressed by the researchers.
Coaching experience would greatly effect the responses of the participants, yet this was not considered in the study.With regard to coaching level, 25 (0.15) were junior high coaches, 99 (0.61) high school, and 38 (0.24) at the college level.While this is a good sample size, the problem lies with the distribution of the sample.This is not consistent with the type of data collected.The RLSS used a Likert scale (ordinal), yet a MANOVA would be most applicable for normally distributed, quantitative data.Once again, a better analysis method could have been chosen based on the nature of the data collected. The ecological generaliziability for the study is fairly high.The surveys were mailed out, and returned on a volunteer basis.The instrument utilized was the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale (RLSS) developed by Zhang, Jensen, and Mann in 1996.This scale is used to measure six leadership behaviors: training and instruction, democratic, autocratic, social support, positive feedback, and situational consideration.High school coaches scored much higher than college level coaches in democratic behavior.Junior high coaches were significantly lower in training and instruction than either high school or college coaches.